Food Microbiology Academy


Food spoilage yeast reference list


1999, Critical Controls for Juice Safety, U.S. Food Drug and Administration, viewed 28th October 2008, <;

2003, Recommended International Code of Practice – General Principles of Food Hygiene, Codex Alimentarius – Current Official Standards List, viewed 27th October 2008, <;

2008, Australian Food Statistics 2007, Commonwealth of Australia, viewed 28th October 2008, <;

2008, Food Safety Standards, Food Standards Australia New Zealand, viewed 27th October 2008, <;

Alzamora, SM, Tapia, MS & Lopez-Malo, A 2000, Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables: Fundamental Aspects and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg. 

Andrews, S, Graaf, HD & Stamation, H 1995, ‘Optimisation of methodology for enumeration of xerophilic yeasts from foods’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp.109-116.

Belle, DV & Andre, B 2001, ‘A genomic view of yeast membrane transporters’, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, vol. 13, pp. 389-398.

Betts, NM, Nitzke, S, Kritsch, K, Greene, G & Lohse KB 2003, ‘Transforming young adults perception about eating fruits and vegetables into a stage-tailored intervention’, Society For Nutrition Education, Philadelphia. 

Casey, GD & Dobson, ADW 2003, ‘Potential of using a real-time PCR-based detection of spoilage yeast in fruit juices – a preliminary study’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 327-335.

Chen, C & Tseng, CW 1996, ‘Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the temperature dependence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii’, Process Biochemistry, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 337-343.

Cole, MB, Franklin, JG & Keenan, MHJ 1987, ‘Probability of growth of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii in a model fruit drink system’, Food Microbiology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 115-119.

Cole, MB & Keenan, MHJ 1986, ‘Synergistic effects of weak-acid preservatives and pH on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii’, Yeast, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 93-100.

Cole, MB & Keenan, MHJ 1987, ‘Effects of weak acids and external pH on the intracellular pH of Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and its implications in weak-acid resistance’, Yeast, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 23-32.

Deak, T 2008, Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts, 2nd edn, CRC Press, Boca Raton. 

Deak, T & Beuchat, LR 1996, Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts, 1st edn, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Demidchik, V, Macpherson, N & Davies JM 2005, ‘Potassium transport at the plasma membrane of the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii’, Yeast, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 21-29. 

Duarte, FL, Pais, C, Spencer-Martins, I & Leao, C 2004, ‘Isoenzyme patterns: A valuable molecular tool for the differentiation of Zygosaccharomyces species and detection of misidentified isolates’, Systematic and Applied Microbiology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 436-442.

Elez-Martinez, P, Escola-Hernandez, J, Soliva-Fortuny, RC & Martin-Belloso, O 2004, ‘Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspended in orange juice using high-intensity pulsed electric fields’, Journal of Food Protection, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 2596-2602.

El Halouat, A & Debevere, JM 1996, ‘Influence of modified atmosphere and preservatives on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii isolated from dried fruits’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 2-3. Pp. 219-229.

El Halouat, A, Gourama, H, Uyttendaele, M, & Debevere, JM 1998, ‘Effects of modified atmosphere packaging and preservatives on the shelf-life of high moisture prunes and raisins’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 177-184.

Flores, CL, Rodrigueza, C, Petita, T & Gancedoa, C 2000, ‘Carbohydrate and energy-yielding metabolism in non-conventional yeasts’, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 507-529. 

Florin, THJ, Neale, G, Goretski, S & Cumming, JH 1993, ‘The Sulfate Content of Foods and Beverages’, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 140-151.

Frazier WC & Westhoff, DC 2005, Food Microbiology, 4th edn, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, Delhi.

Hazan, R, Levine, A & Abeliovich, H 2004, ‘Benzoic Acid, a Weak Organic Acid Food Preservative,  Exerts Specific Effects on Intracellular Membrane Trafficking Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae’, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 4449-4457. 

Keyser, M, Muller, AI, Cilliers, FP, Nel, W & Gouws, AP 2007, ‘Ultraviolet radiation as a non-thermal treatment for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juice’, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 348-354.

Laurila, E & Ahvenainen, R 2002, ‘Chapter 14: Minimal processing of fresh fruits and vegetables’, Fruit and Vegetable Processing, CRC Press,  Boca Raton. 

Loureiro, V 2000, ‘Spoilage yeasts in foods and beverages: characterisation and ecology for improved diagnosis and control’, Food Research International, vol. 33, no. 3-4, pp. 247-256. 

Leyva, JS, Manrique, M, Prats, L, Loureiro-Dias, MC & Peinado, JM 1999, ‘Regulation of fermentative CO2 production by the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii’, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 24, no. 5-6, pp. 270-275.

Leyva, JS & Peinado, JM 2005, ‘ATP requirements for benzoic acid tolerance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii’, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 121-126.

Macpherson, N, Shabala, L, Rooney, H, Jarman, MG & Davies, JM 2005, ‘Plasma membrane H+ and K+ transporters are involved in the weak-acid preservative response of disparate food spoilage yeasts’, Microbiology, vol. 151, no. 6, pp. 1995-2003.

Makdesi, AK & Beuchat, LR 1996, ‘Evaluation of media for enumerating heat-stressed, benzoate-resistant Zygosaccharomyces bailii’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 2-3, pp. 169-181.

Martorell, P, Fernandez-Espinar, TM & Querol, A 2005, ‘Molecular monitoring of spoilage yeasts during the production of candied fruit nougats to determine food contamination sources’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 293-302.

Martorell, P, Stratford, M, Steels, H, Fernandez-Espinar, TM, & Querol A 2007, ‘Physiological characterisation of spoilage strains of Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii isolated from high sugar environments’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 234-242.

Mosqueda-Melgar, J, Raybaudi-Massilia, RM & Martin-Belloso, O 2007, ‘Non-thermal pasteurization of fruit juices by combining high-intensity pulsed electric fields with natural antimicrobials’, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 328-340.

Munn, AL 2000, ‘The Yeast Endocytic Membrane Transport System’, Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 51, pp. 547-562.

Ness, AR & Powles, JW 1997, ‘Fruits and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review’, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 26, pp. 1-13.

Neves, L, Pampulha, ME & Louriero-Dias, MC 1994, ‘Resistance of food spoilage yeasts to sorbic acid’, Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 8-11.

Nielsen, MK & Arneborg, N 2007, ‘The effect of citric acid and pH on growth and metabolism of anaerobic Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii cultures’, Food Microbiology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 101-105.

Oda, T, Furuta, M & Inamasu, T 2006, ‘Bursting risk of capped PET bottles with leftover contents caused by yeast growth’, Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 237-241. 

Padula, CA, Rossi, S, Nigg, C, Less, F, Fey-yensan, N, Greene, G & Clark, P 2003, ‘Using focus groups for instrument development: application of the Trans-Theoretical Model to fruit and vegetable behaviors of older adults’, Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, vol. 22, pp. 13-33. 

Palou, E, Lopez-Malo, A, Barbosa-Canovas, GV, Welti-Channes, J & Swanson, BG 1997, ‘High hydrostatic pressure as a hurdle for Zygosaccharomyces bailii inactivation’, Journal of Food Science, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 855-857.

Palou, E, Lopez-Malo, A, Barbosa-Canovas, GV, Welti-Channes, J & Swanson, BG 1997, ‘Kinetic analysis of Zygosaccharomyces bailii inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure’, Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 703-708.

Pampulha, ME & Loureiro-Dias, MC 1989, ‘Combined effect of acetic acid, pH, and ethanol on intracellular pH of fermenting yeasts’, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 31, pp. 547-550.

Piper, PW 1999, ‘Yeast superoxide dismutase mutants reveal a pro-oxidant action of weak organic acid food preservatives’, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 27, no. 11-12, pp. 1219-1227.

Praphailong, W & Fleet, GH 1997, ‘The effect of pH, sodium chloride, sorbate and benzoate on the growth of food spoilage yeasts’, Food Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 459-468.

Pribylova, L, Papouskova, K & Sychrova, H 2008, ‘Zygosaccharomyces rouxii possessed two plasma-membrane Na+/H+-antiporters (ZrNha1p and ZrSod2-22p) playing different roles in cation homeostasis and cell physiology’, Fungal Genetics and Biology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1439-1447.

Quintas, C, Leyva, JS, Sotoca, R, Loureiro-Dias, MC & Peinado, JM 2005, ‘A model of the specific growth rate inhibition by weak acids in yeasts based on energy requirements’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 100, no. 1-3, pp. 125-130.

Raso, J, Calderon, ML, Gongora, M, Barbosa-Canovas, GV & Swanson, BG 1998, ‘Inactivation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in fruit juices by heat, high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields’, Journal of Food Science, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 1042-1044.

Ray, B 2004, Fundamental Food Microbiology, CRC Press, Boca Raton. 

Rawsthorne, H & Phister, TG 2006, ‘A real-time PCR assay for the enumeration and detection of Zygosaccharomyces bailii from wine and fruit juices’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 1-7.

Reed, G & Peppler, HJ 1973, Yeast Technology, AVI Publishing, Westport.

Restuccia, C, Randazzo, C & Caggia, C 2006, ‘Influence of packaging on spoilage yeast population in minimally processed orange slices’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 109, no. 1-2, pp. 146-150.

Reyns, KMFA, Soontjens, CCF, Cornelis, K, Weemaes, CA, Hendrickx, ME & Michiels, CW 2000, ‘Kinetic analysis and modeling of combined high-pressure-temperature inactivation of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 2-3, pp. 199-210.

Renard, A, Gomez di Marco, P, Egea-Cortines, M & Weiss, J 2008, ‘Application of whole genome amplification and quantitative PCR for detectation and quantification of spoilage yeasts in orange juice’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 126, no. 1-2, pp. 195-201.

Rodrigues, F, Corte-Real, M, Leao, C & Dijken, JP 2001, ‘Oxygen requirements of the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii in synthetic and complex media’, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 2123-2128.

Solieri, L & Giudici, P 2008, ‘Yeasts associated to traditional balsamic vinegar: ecological and technological features’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 125, no.1, pp. 36-45.

Steels, H, James, SA, Bond, CJ, Roberts, IN & Stratford, M 2002, ‘Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis: the physiology of a new species related to the spoilage yeasts Zygosaccharomyces lentus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii’, FEMS Yeast Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 113-121.

Steels, H, James, SA, Roberts, IN & Stratford, M 2000, ‘Sorbic acid resistance: the inoculums effect’, Yeast, vol. 16, no. 13, pp. 1173-1183.

Steinmetz, K & Potter, J 1996, ‘Vegetables, fruits and cancer prevention: a review’, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 96, pp. 1027-1040.

Smits, GJ & Brul, S 2005, ‘Stress tolerance in fungi – to kill a spoilage yeast’, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 225-230.

Tapia, MS & Welti-Chanes, J 2002, ‘Chapter 41: Approaches for Safety Assessment of Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables’, Engineering and Food for the 21st Century, CRC Press, Boca Raton. 

Thomas, DS & Davenport, RR 1985, ‘Zygosaccharomyces bailii – a profile of characteristics and spoilage activities’, Food Microbiology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 157-169.

Tournas, VH, Heeres, J & Burgess, L 2006, ‘Moulds and yeasts in fruits salads and fruit juices’, Food Microbiology, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 684-688.

Tran, MTT & Farid, M 2004, ‘Ultraviolet treatment of orange juice’, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 495-502.

Van Der Vossen, JMBM & Hofstra, H 1996, ‘DNA based typing, identification and detection systems for food spoilage microorganisms: development and implementation’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 35-49. 

Vasconcellos, JA 2004, ‘Chapter 9: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point’, Quality Assurance for the Food Industry: A practical approach, CRC Press, Boca Raton. 

Verma, LR & Joshi, VK 2000, Postharvest technology of fruits and vegetable: handling, processing, fermentation, and waste management, Indus Publishing, India.

Warth, AD 1986, ‘Effect of nutrients and pH on the resistance of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to benzoic acid’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 263-271.

Warth, AD 1989, ‘Relationships between the resistance of yeasts to acetic, propanoic and benzoic acids and to methyl paraben and pH’, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 343-349.

Watanabe, Y, Iwaki, T, Shimono, Y, Ichimiya, A, Nagaoka, Y & Tamai, Y 1999, ‘Characterisation of the Na+-ATPase gene (ZENA1) from the salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii’, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 136-142.

Worobo, RW & Splittstoesser DF 2005; ‘Chapter 12: Microbiology of Fruit Products’, Processing Fruit Science and Technology, 2nd edn, CRC Press, Boca Raton. 

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